About 49% of all residential buildings in Europe are situated in densely populated areas. By 2030, 60% of the world’s population will live in cities, more than 75% of the total CO2 emissions will be emitted in cities, and more than 73% of the total primary energy demand will be consumed by cities mostly for heating and cooling.
Urban areas must therefore play a key role in the future of renewable and efficient energy systems. To deal with these challenges, cities will need to become ‘Smart Cities’. They will have to focus on alternative and decentralized ways for energy production based on renewable energy sources as well as on energy conservation and efficient energy usage.
For cities to become ‘smart,’ it is important to develop intelligent energy infrastructures including smart electrical and thermal grids. It is thus essential to develop heating systems that are tailored for application in urban areas and capable of interacting with future intelligent energy infrastructures of ‘Smart Cities’.